Taxation of cryptocurrencies and Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs)
Cryptocurrencies and NFTs are undoubtedly one of the hottest topics in the finance world at the moment. Many individuals, and businesses, are intrigued by the potential profits (and losses it is worth remembering!) that can be made, but what happens when they are disposed of?
Principles of taxation
The first thing to consider when any asset is sold is whether it is a sale of an investment or whether the trading constitutes a business. This is an important distinction as the tax rates vary dramatically for individuals as the sale of an investment is charged to Capital Gains Tax (CGT) and the sale of trading assets are subject to Income Tax (IT). This is arguably less of a concern for trades within a limited company structure as limited companies are subject to Corporation Tax at a flat rate of 19%.
If an individual sells cryptocurrency, or an NFT, the sale of an investment is likely to attract CGT of, at maximum, 20% whilst the sale of a trading asset could give rise to a trading profit chargeable to IT at rates of up to 47%.
What determines whether I have an investment or a business?
For tax purposes, this is based on years of case law, however, the following are factors that must be considered when determining whether the sale is of an investment asset or a trading asset:
The number of transactions
The nature of the asset
Existence of similar trading transactions or interests
Changes to the asset
The way the sale was carried out
The source of finance
Interval of time between purchase and sale
Method of acquisition
HMRC do not look at one factor in isolation and make the decision based on ‘the balance of the facts’, therefore, it is important for traders in these assets to get clarity on the position prior to sale.
If I am trading, is there anything that I should be considering?
If the trades of cryptocurrencies and / or NFTs results in you trading for tax purposes, you will also have to consider whether VAT should be charged on the sales. Currently, the VAT threshold is £85,000, therefore, any traders with turnover (the amount the assets are sold for, not profit!) should take advice as to whether they need to register for VAT. This is an extremely complicated area and the need to register for VAT may vary on a case-by-case basis.
In addition, individuals may wish to incorporate their cryptocurrency and NFT transactions business into a limited company. There are many benefits in doing this ranging from limited liability to potential tax savings, therefore, advice should be taken as to the best structure for their situation.
If you have been trading in cryptocurrencies and / or NFTs and would like any advice on the above, please contact our specialist Connor Smith: firstname.lastname@example.org